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Safety requirements for storage of hazardous chemicals
Author:Fabor Time:2016-09-27

 

Safety requirements for storage of hazardous chemicals
 
In this case,
Hazardous chemical storage facilities generally have dangerous chemical libraries, storage tanks and oil depots. A description of the storage facilities and their safety requirements is presented as an example of a hazardous chemical library. In this case,
 
1, the selection of the basic requirements of the site
(1) Large-scale dangerous chemical libraries and liquefied petroleum gas reserve stations should be located in areas far away from residential areas, villages and towns, industrial enterprises and important public buildings such as theaters and gymnasiums, and should be selected in the prevailing wind direction. In this case,
(2) factories and mines production subsidiaries should not be located in the city's residential and public buildings, should be located in the safety zone on the edge of the plant. In this case,
(3) small warehouse should be set in the enterprise unit of the regional edge, and to ensure that the fire spacing requirements. In this case,
(4) Special warehouses for Class A and B goods, liquid storage tanks for Class A, B and C, and flammable materials yard should be located in the low-lying safe areas in urban areas (suburbs). City gas storage tanks should be Distributed in the user's centralized security zone. In this case,
(5) Liquefied petroleum gas storage tank should be arranged in the unit or local minimum annual wind direction of the wind side, and choose a well-ventilated place set separately. In this case,
(6) barrels, bottles of armored liquid should not be open-air layout.
 
2, the fire resistance of the Treasury, layers and floor area
(1) The fire-resistant grade, the number of layers and the construction area of ​​the warehouse of dangerous chemicals shall meet the requirements of the design code for the warehouse of dangerous chemicals. In this case,
① high-level warehouses, elevated warehouses and silos of the fire resistance rating should not be less than two; two fire-resistant silos can be used steel silo. Storage of special valuables of the Treasury, the fire-resistant level should be one. In this case,
② The construction area of ​​the independent storehouse of ammonium nitrate, calcium carbide, polyethylene, urea, coal storage, station, wharf and airport can be increased by 1.00 times as specified in this table, but the refractory grade should not Less than two. In this case,
③ With the automatic fire extinguishing equipment of the Treasury, the construction area in accordance with the table and Note ② ② increased by 1.00 times.
④ The oil storage area of ​​the barrel of oil can be carried out according to the existing national standard "Design Code for Oil Depot". In this case,
⑤ coal homogenization of the maximum allowable fire district construction area of ​​12000m2, but the fire resistance rating should not be less than two. In this case,
(2) one, two fire-resistant level of cold storage, the maximum allowable floor area of ​​each warehouse and fire separation area, according to "cold storage design specifications" of the relevant provisions. In this case,
(3) the same warehouse or within the same firewall, such as the storage of several different fire risk items, the Treasury or compartment minimum fire rating, the maximum allowable floors and the maximum allowable floor area, according to which the fire hazard The largest items are identified. In this case,
 
3, the storage of chemical hazardous substances safety requirements
Chemical dangerous goods warehouse is a storage of flammable, explosive and other dangerous chemicals in place, the warehouse site must be appropriate, the building must meet the specifications, so that scientific management to ensure that its storage and storage security. In this case,
Safety requirements for storage and storage:
① the storage of chemical substances limited by the local authorities and public security departments;
② transport departments should be in the stations, terminals and other places to build dedicated storage of hazardous chemical substances in the warehouse;
③ The location and structure of the storage of chemical hazardous substances shall be set up in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State and shall fully consider the impact on the residential areas;
 
Safety requirements for classification and storage of chemical hazardous substances
 
(1) Safety requirements for the storage of explosive substances
Storage of explosive substances by the original public security, railway, commercial, chemical, health and agriculture departments on the "Explosive Control Regulations" requirements. In this case,
① explosive substances must be stored in a dedicated warehouse;
② storage of explosive substances in the warehouse, shall not be stored in conflict with the explosive material;
③ all explosive substances shall not be with the acid, alkali, salts and certain metals, oxidizers, such as the same library storage;
④ for ventilation, loading and unloading and easy access to check, explosive substances stacked, the stacking should not be too high too close;
⑤ explosive material warehouse temperature and humidity should be strengthened control and regulation.
In this case,
(2) Safety requirements for storage of compressed and liquefied gases
The combustible gas and the highly toxic gas shall not be stored together with the corrosive substance; the oxygen shall not be mixed with the oil and stored; (2) The compressed gas and the liquefied gas shall not be stored together with other substances;
② liquefied petroleum gas tank area security requirements. Liquefied petroleum gas storage tank area, should be arranged in a well ventilated and away from open flame or sparks of open air. Should not be flammable, combustible liquid storage tank with the same arrangement. More should not be located in a soil dike. The vertical axis of the horizontal pressure liquefied gas tank should not be used in places where important buildings, important equipment, traffic arteries and personnel are concentrated. In this case,
③ safety requirements for the storage of gas cylinders. Store the storage tanks should be single-storey buildings, easy to open the light set up the roof, the floor can be asphalt mortar concrete laying, doors and windows are open, the glass coated with white. Library temperature should not exceed 35 ℃, ventilation cooling measures. Bottle library application firewall is divided into separate plant if the plant, each sub-security entrance. The maximum storage capacity of the cylinders shall be in accordance with the relevant provisions. In this case,
 
(3) Safety requirements for storage of flammable liquids
① flammable liquids should be stored in a cool and ventilated place, and with the fire to maintain a certain distance, in a certain area is strictly prohibited fireworks;
② Flammable liquids with a boiling point lower than or close to the summer temperature shall be stored in a storage or storage tank with cooling facilities. The containers containing flammable liquids shall retain not less than 5% of the volume. In this case,
③ low flammable liquid flash point, should pay attention to control library temperature. Low temperature is easy to condense into a block of flammable liquid after the container is easy to expand the crack, it should be noted that antifreeze;
④ flammable, combustible liquid storage tank on the ground, half of the ground and underground three types. Ground storage tanks shall not be placed in the same tank group as underground or semi-underground storage tanks. And should not be arranged with the liquefied petroleum gas tank in the same tank group. The storage tanks in the tank group shall not be arranged in more than two rows. In the ground and semi-underground flammable, combustible liquid storage tank should be set around the fire dam. In this case,
 
(4) Safety requirements for flammable solid storage
① storage of flammable solid storage requirements of cool, dry, there should be insulation measures, avoid sunlight, volatile, flammable solids should be sealed stacking, storage requirements of strict moisture;
② flammable solids are mostly reductant, should be stored separately from oxygen and oxidants. There are many flammable solid toxic, so the storage should pay attention to anti-virus.
In this case,
(5) Safety requirements for the storage of spontaneous combustion substances
 
① spontaneous combustion of materials can not be flammable liquids, flammable solids, water combustion material mixed storage, can not be mixed with corrosive substances mixed storage;
② spontaneous combustion substances in the storage, the temperature and humidity requirements are more stringent, must be stored in a cool, ventilated and dry warehouse, and pay attention to fire prevention, anti-virus work.
In this case,
(6) Safety requirements for storage of combustible matter in water
 
① storage of water-burning substances should be used in high-lying areas of storage, in the summer rainstorm season to ensure that no water, stacking when using dry sleepers or pads;
② storage of material burning water storage requirements of the dry, to prevent the invasion of rain and snow. The doors and windows of the warehouse can be sealed. The relative humidity of the Treasury is generally maintained below 75%, the maximum not more than 80%;
③ potassium, sodium, etc. should be stored in water-free mineral oil or paraffin oil.
 
(7) Safety requirements for storage of oxidizing agents
① oxidants and organic oxidants can not be mixed with the storage of organic; can not mix with other weak oxidizer storage; can not be compressed gas, liquefied gas mixed storage; oxidant and toxic substances shall not be mixed storage. In this case,
② storage of oxidants should be strictly controlled temperature and humidity. Can take the whole library sealed, sub-stacking seal and natural ventilation combined method. In this case,
 
(8) Safety requirements for storage of toxic substances
① toxic substances should be stored in a cool dry ventilated places, to avoid open storage, can not contact with acid substances;
② is strictly prohibited with the same food and a library;
③ packaging sealing must be tight, whether bottled, boxed, boxed or other packaging, the outside should be affixed (printed) have a clear name and logo;
 
(9) Storage of corrosive substances - Safety requirements
① corrosive substances must be stored in Dongnuanxialiang the Treasury electricity, to maintain ventilation, dry, moisture, heat;
② corrosive substances can not be mixed with flammable materials storage, storage can be separated with the walls of different corrosive substances;
③ use the appropriate corrosion-resistant containers containing corrosive substances, and packaging sealing should be tight. Additional hazardous substances storage requirements:
 
Chemical reagents are divided into eight categories: explosives; compressed gas and liquefied gas; flammable liquids; flammable solids, spontaneous combustion of combustible materials and wet flammable items; oxidants and organic peroxides; drugs; radioactive materials; In this case,
Explosives: such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (alias: TNT or brown explosives; molecular formula: CH3C6H2 (NO2) 3), cyclotrimethylenetetramine (alias gold, C3H6N3 (NO2) 3) , Mercuric acid mercury (Hg (ONC) 2) and the like. In this case,
Precautions: 
1, should be placed in a cool ventilated place, away from the fire, away from heat, to prevent direct sunlight, storage temperature is generally 15 ~ 300C, relative humidity is generally 65% ​​to 75%. In this case,
2, to prevent impact, fall, roll, friction. In this case,
3, is strictly prohibited and oxidants, spontaneous combustion items, acids, alkalis, salts, flammable materials, metal powder together. In this case,
4, strict implementation of the "double custody, double account, double lock" requirement. In this case,
Compressed and liquefied gases:
1, flammable gases: such as n-butane (CH3CH2CH2CH3), hydrogen (H2), acetylene (alias: calcium carbide gas, C2H2) and so on. In this case,
2, non-combustible gases: such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, xenon, argon, neon, helium and so on. In this case,
3, toxic gases: such as chlorine (Cl2), sulfur dioxide (alias: sulfite anhydride, SO2), ammonia (NH3) and so on. In this case,
Note: with all types of cylinder management requirements. In this case,
Flammable liquids: such as gasoline (C5H12 ~ C12H26), ethanethiol (C2H5SH), diethylamine ((C2H5) 2NH), ether (C4H10O), acetone (formula: C3H6O) and so on. In this case,
Precautions: 
1, should be placed in a cool ventilated place, away from fire, heat, oxidants and acids. In this case,
2, the storage temperature should not exceed 300C. In this case,
3, Gently handle, is strictly prohibited rolling, friction and collision. In this case,
4, regular inspection. In this case,
Flammable solid, self-igniting materials and flammable when wet:
Flammable solids: such as N, N-dinitroso pentamethylenetetramine ((CH2) 5 (NO) 2N4), dinitro naphthalene (C10H6 (NO2) 2), red phosphorus (P4) In this case,
Precautions: 
1, placed in a cool ventilated place, away from the fire, heat, oxidants and acid substances. In this case,
2, do not mix with other dangerous chemical reagents. In this case,
3, Gently handle, is strictly prohibited rolling, friction and collision. In this case,
4, to prevent damp moldy. In this case,
Spontaneous combustion products: such as diethyl zinc (Zn (C2H5) 2), sodium hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4 ∙ 2H2O), yellow phosphorus (P4) and so on. In this case,
Precautions: 
1, should be placed in a cool, ventilated, dry place, away from fire, heat, to prevent direct sunlight. In this case,
2, do not acid substances, oxidants, metal powder and flammable and explosive materials co-stored. In this case,
3, Gently handle, is strictly prohibited rolling, friction and collision. In this case,
Wet case of flammable materials: trichlorosilane (SiHCl3), calcium carbide (CaC2) and so on. In this case,
Precautions: 
1, stored in a dry place.
2, and acid items isolated. In this case,
3, do not co-store with flammable materials. In this case,
4, to prevent the impact, vibration, friction. Oxidizing agents and organic peroxides:
(CaCl2), calcium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite, 3Ca (OCl) 2 • Ca (NH4NO3), potassium chlorate (KClO3), sodium hypochlorite (H2O2) (OH) 2, sodium dichromate (Na2Cr2O7 • 2H2O), and the like.
Precautions: 
1, the chemical reagents should be sealed and stored in a cool dry place. In this case,
2, should be with organic matter, combustible, sulfur, phosphorus, reducing agent, acid items stored separately. 3, Gently, do not touch the skin, once inadvertently, should immediately rinse with water. Oxygen peroxide (such as: peracetic acid (content of 43%) (alias peracetic acid, CH3COOOH), dodecanoyl peroxide (industrial purity) ((C11H23CO) 2O2), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (C4HgO2) and so on. In this case,
Precautions: 
1, stored in a clean, cool, dry and ventilated place. In this case,
2, away from the fire, heat, to prevent sun exposure. In this case,
3, not with acids, flammable substances, organic matter, reductant, spontaneous combustion, wet storage in case of wet storage. In this case,
4, gently, avoid collision, friction, to prevent an explosion. Toxic chemical reagents sub-toxic and toxic two categories:
Toxic chemicals: inorganic toxic categories, such as cyanide, arsenic, selenide, mercury, osmium, thallium, phosphorus compounds. Organic highly toxic categories, such as dimethyl sulfate, tetraethyl lead, benzene and other acetic acid. In this case,
Toxic chemical reagents: inorganic toxic categories, such as mercury, lead, barium, fluoride compounds. Organic toxic categories, such as oxalic acid, tetrachlorethylene, toluene diisocyanate, aniline and so on. In this case,
Precautions: 
1, toxic chemical reagents should be placed in the ventilation, away from the fire, away from heat. 2, toxic chemicals generally not and other types of items (including non-dangerous goods) co-placed, especially with acids and oxidants were put together, in particular, can not be put together with the food. In this case,
3, for toxic chemical reagents, the chemical reagents should be lightly put, is strictly prohibited collision, roll to prevent leakage broke. In this case,
4, operation, should wear protective clothing, masks, gloves. 5, the experiment is strictly prohibited diet, smoking. 6, after the experiment should be a bath and change clothes. In this case,
Radioactive items: such as cobalt 60, monazite, radium, natural uranium and so on. Precautions: 
1, with lead cans, iron cans or lead iron combination tank dress. In this case,
2, the experimental operation personnel must do a good job of personal protection, after work must take a bath to change clothes. 3, in strict accordance with the provisions of the management of radioactive material radioactive sources. In this case,
Corrosive chemical reagents: acidic corrosive chemical reagents, such as nitric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfur pentachloride, phosphoric acid, formic acid, chloroacetyl chloride, acetic acid, chlorosulfonic acid, bromine. Alkaline caustic chemistry, such as sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide, sodium ethoxide, diethanolamine, dicyclohexylamine, hydrazine hydrate and the like. In this case,
Precautions: 
1, corrosive chemical reagents varieties are more complex, should be stored according to their different properties. In this case,
2, flammable, volatile items, such as formic acid, bromoacetyl, etc. should be placed in a cool, ventilated place.
3, frozen easy to freeze items, such as acetic acid, low temperature easy polymerization deterioration items, such as formaldehyde should be stored in the cool in winter and cool in winter. In this case,
4, organic corrosion products should be stored away from fire, heat and oxidants, flammable materials, where wet flammable materials. In this case,
5, easy decomposition of corrosive substances such as phosphorus pentoxide, aluminum chloride, etc. should be stored in a drier place
6, bleaching powder, sodium hypochlorite solution should avoid sun exposure. 7, alkaline corrosion products should be stored separately with the acid. 8, oxidizing acid should be away from flammable materials. In this case,
9, the laboratory should be prepared, such as soda water, dilute boric acid water, water and a class of ambulance items and medicine. In this case,
10, to do experiments should wear protective equipment, to avoid spilled down, overturned, dumping of corrosive chemical reagents. In this case,
11, the experiment, the body once mistakenly touched corrosive chemical reagents, contact with corrosive chemical reagents should be immediately rinse with water for 5 to 10 minutes, depending on the situation whether to seek medical treatment.

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